Power System Solutions
The power systems group at KALKITECH has a rich experience in the area of electrical power system design, simulation, consulting and development of basic and advanced simulation tools for electric network analysis. The group also develops and provides real time control, protection and monitoring solutions to power networks, generation systems, frequency control, load management, reactive power control and training simulators. KALKITECH’s strength lies in the fundamental understanding of the physical behavior of the electrical networks as is evidenced by the rich experience of its specialist consultants.
Generation planning needs many factors to be considered depending on the nature of generation. The planned generation capacity could be very large/ medium/small size, or even a part of an industrial plant that is connected to the grid. Some of the generating units may be from renewable energy such as wind or solar power. In large generating stations, apart from the power evacuation studies involved from the generating station to external grid, power system studies and engineering are also needed within the generating plant considering the auxiliary loads and their startup mechanisms. In industrial plants having captive power generation [CPP], the operational issues in parallel with the external grid, industrial plant load supply, export/import restrictions, frequency controls are various factors that may have to be considered. The basis of large generation plan is usually long term energy demand forecast. Industrial captive generations usually start to meet the local industrial demand and sometimes may export or import power from the grid. The renewable energy sources are formed from view point of clean, perennial and environment friendly energy considerations.
Kalkitech covers the following aspects in Generation Planning and Power Plant Engineering:
- Long term energy demand forecast
- Availability of energy resources, land, facilities and environmental considerations
- Provisions for power evacuation
- Economic considerations
- Policies of the government
- Power Plant Auxiliary System Design
- Frequency Control Engineering for Generation Plants
- Generation Step Up and Plant Auxiliary Switch Yard/Substation Design
- Available transmission facilities and planned new facilities
- Power system stability and reliability
- Power evacuation facilities
- Protection and control of the generating units, auxiliary plants, HT substations, External grid network at the point of interconnection
- Power System studies for the plant as well as the interconnection with external grid and study of interactions with other various generators with existing and proposed transmission network as needed.
- Detailed engineering of the power plant
Read More about:
Transmission systems are planned, designed and operated for bulk power transmission from large generating stations to large load centers. A typical transmission project can take from few months to few years to implement.
Kalkitech covers the following aspects in Transmission Planning:
- Cost of options
- Time needed to implement different options and time frame needed for evacuation of proposed generation to load centers
- Environmental considerations
- Choice of kV level
- Type of transmission - AC/DC
- Number of circuits
- Conductor type
- Transmission loss
- Reactive power support requirements
- Quality of power supply
- Stability aspects of the interconnected system
- Operational planning
- Short circuit levels and breaker requirements
- Over voltages and control
- Insulation coordination at substations
- Substation arrangements at the end of line, including switching arrangements.
- Insulation requirements.
- Protection, monitoring, control and automation requirements
- Study of harmonics where needed [as in case of HVDC or when a terminating station is close to sources of harmonics]
- Basic and Detailed engineering related to transmission towers, routes, substations
Read More about:
Sub-transmission and Distribution systems are established at major load centers and are supplied from the main transmission substations. The distribution powers are either supplied directly at higher kV rating for industrial consumers or where the consumers use LT power supply, the power is supplied through step down transformers. Many of the LT consumers may also use single phase power supply with connected load less than 10 KW.
Kalkitech covers the following aspects for distribution system planning and design
- Spatial Load Forecast based on geographical location, type of consumers in the specified geography
- Assessment of the demand requirements area wise for the future years
- Identification of suitable locations for 66/11 kV substations and the number of transformers in each geographical area and their MVA rating.
- Identification of HT consumers at 11 kV or if needed at 66 kV
- Identification of possible number of 11/0.4 kV or 11/0.415 kV transformers and their location for LT consumers
- Techno commercial evaluation of the various options distribution feeders to meet existing and new customers [conductors, transformers, reactive power compensations], involving power system studies.
- Geographical mapping of the distribution system with or without application of Geographical Information System
- Distribution Substation and feeder design, with power flow studies, short circuit studies, earthing requirements, reactive power compensation, transformer size, tap , kV, MVA requirements, related detailed engineering services.
- Metering, Protection, Operation and Control Requirements
- Demand side management
Read More about:
Industrial systems vary in size with electricity demands ranging from few MW to few hundred MW. Typical of continuous process industries are cement, paper, steel, petro-chemicals, oil and gas, metal industries, refineries, automobile industries, fertilizers, textiles, food processing units and many more. In most cases motor loads are major portion of the industrial systems and in many other cases non-linear loads form a major portion of the industrial loads. Power electronics applications for controlling the process loads and for controlling reactive power demand are common in many of the industrial loads. A typical system design begins with collection of load list in each of the process plants and designing individual cables, feeders, power control centers, motor control centers, HT panels, instrumentation, protection and control etc.
It is typical that most industrial distribution network are designed to be radial, with some time redundant supply arrangements [the incomers to panels that supply loads] through bus coupling arrangements. Many industries have their own captive power plants which provide whole or partial generation power needed for the industrial plant load. In some cases the industrial process produce “waste” energy needed for running AC generators that can be used to establish a captive power plant. It is also common for the industrial units to operate in parallel with the electricity supply grid and import/export power depending on the needs and contract between the plant and the electricity supply company.
Kalkitech covers the following aspects in engineering services planning for industrial systems
- Detailed engineering
- Purchase specifications of the equipments
- Power system studies
- Protection and control
- Grid paralleling issues and related operating plans
- Load shedding issues and load management
- Process control and reliability
- Renovation, modernization and expansion studies
- Project and Site management
- Harmonic measurements, analysis, filter design, power quality issues in specific industries
- Testing and commissioning
- Frequency Control Engineering for Industrial Power Plants
- Switch Yard/Substation Design for Industrial systems inclusive of grid interconnection yard
Read More about:
PowerApps is specially equipped with special features for academic institutions by providing reports of various calculations as intermediate outputs of the algorithm. PowerApps software can be customized to meet specific requirements, features needed for academic institutions. Further, the class libraries of the PowerApps software can be provided on license and with documentation to academic community for development works in the form of DLL files. These DLL files represent the class libraries called Power Foundation Classes [PFC], based on which the power system analysis algorithms of PowerApps is developed.
The source codes of the PowerApps developed using PFC DLL file and C++ can also be provided to academic institutes on license and with necessary documentation and technical support. This will enable students to familiarize with aspects of algorithm design, structure and enable them to undertake similar development work as part of their projects.
Special requirements from academic institutes can be communicated to the PowerApps development team and the development team will incorporate these requirements in subsequent releases of the PowerApps software.
Kalkitech also offer special license fees to Academic institutions and Research and Development Institutes. And also undertake specific course designs as needed by our clients in this segment.
To know more about Kalkitech PowerApps, please visit PowerApps